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KL DAVA NCNA 8. EVA JCS 7. SAL It is indeed complex, but it seems to be the future. Online news has also changed the geographic reach of individual news stories, diffusing readership from city-by-city markets to a potentially global audience. The growth of social media networks have also created new opportunities for automated and efficient news gathering for journalists and newsrooms.

Many newsrooms broadcasters, newspapers, magazines, radio and TV have started to perform news gathering on social media platforms. Social media is creating changes in the consumer behaviour and news consumption. According to a study by Pew Research , a large portion of Americans read news on digital and on mobile devices. Because internet does not have the "column inches" limitation of print media, online news stories can, but don't always, come bundled with supplementary material. The medium of the world wide web also enables hyperlinking , which allows readers to navigate to other pages related to the one they're reading.

Despite these changes, some studies have concluded that internet news coverage remains fairly homogenous and dominated by news agencies. News agencies are services which compile news and disseminate it in bulk. Because they disseminate information to a wide variety of clients, who repackage the material as news for public consumption, news agencies tend to use less controversial language in their reports.

Despite their importance, news agencies are not well known by the general public. They keep low profiles and their reporters usually do not get bylines. By the end of the twentieth century, Reuters far outpaced the other news agencies in profits, and became one of the largest companies in Europe. United Press International gained prominence as a world news agency in the middle of the twentieth century, but shrank in the s and was sold off at low prices.

News agencies, especially Reuters and the newly important Bloomberg News , convey both news stories for mass audiences and financial information of interest to businesses and investors. Its news service continued to exploit this electronic advantage by combining computer-generated analytics with text reporting. Bloomberg linked with Agence France Presse in the s. Following the marketization of the Chinese economy and the media boom of the s, Xinhua has adopted some commercial practices including subscription fees, but it remains government-subsidized.

It provides newswire, news photos, economic information, and audio and video news. On the internet, news aggregators play a role similar to that of the news agency—and, because of the sources they select, tend to transmit news stories which originate from the main agencies. Of articles displayed by Yahoo!

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News in the U. In India, News stories come from Reuters. Google News relies somewhat less on news agencies, and has shown high volatility, in the sense of focusing heavily on the most recent handful of salient world events. By some accounts, dating back to the s, the increasing interconnectedness of the news system has accelerated the pace of world history itself. The global news system is dominated by agencies from Europe and the United States, and reflects their interests and priorities in its coverage.

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UNESCO encouraged the new states formed from colonial territories in the s to establish news agencies, to generate domestic news stories, exchange news items with international partners, and disseminate both types of news internally. Alton Jones Foundation to report news on chosen topics, including the environment, sustainable development, and women's issues. In India, —, these agencies implemented an experimental satellite television system, called the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment , with assistance from the Indian Space Research Organisation , and All India Radio.

By the s, much of the Third World had succumbed to a debt crisis resulting from unrepayably large loans accumulated since the s. At this point, the World Bank took an active role in the governance of many countries, and its authority extended to communications policy. The policy of developing Third World media gave way to a global regime of free trade institutions like the World Trade Organization , which also protected the free flow of information across borders.

In countries with less telecommunications infrastructure, people, especially youth, tend today to get their news predominantly from mobile phones and, less so, from the internet. The government of China is a major investor in Third World telecommunications, especially in Africa. News values are the professional norms of journalism. Commonly, news content should contain all the " Five Ws " who, what, when, where, why, and also how of an event. Newspapers normally place hard news stories on the first pages, so the most important information is at the beginning, enabling busy readers to read as little or as much as they desire.

Local stations and networks with a set format must take news stories and break them down into the most important aspects due to time constraints.

Journalists are often expected to aim for objectivity ; reporters claim to try to cover all sides of an issue without bias, as compared to commentators or analysts, who provide opinion or personal points of view. The resulting articles lay out facts in a sterile, noncommittal manner, standing back to "let the reader decide" the truth of the matter.

In the United Kingdom , the government agency of Ofcom Office of Communications enforces a legal requirement of "impartiality" on news broadcasters. Many single-party governments have operated state-run news organizations, which may present the government's views. Mid-twentieth-century news reporting in the United States focused on political and local issues with important socio-economic impacts, such as the landing of a living person on the moon or the cold war.

The focus similarly remains on political and local issues; the news mass media now comes under criticism for over-emphasis on "non-news" and "gossip" such as celebrities' personal social issues, local issues of little merit, as well as biased sensationalism of political topics such as terrorism and the economy.

The dominance of celebrity and social news, the blurring of the boundary between news and reality shows and other popular culture, and the advent of citizen journalism may suggest that the nature of 'news' and news values are evolving and that traditional models of the news process are now only partially relevant. Although newswriters have always laid claim to truth and objectivity, the modern values of professional journalism were established beginning in the late s and especially after World War I, when groups like the American Society of Newspaper Editors codified rules for unbiased news reporting.

These norms held the most sway in American and British journalism, and were scorned by some other countries. Even in those situations where objectivity is expected, it is difficult to achieve, and individual journalists may fall foul of their own personal bias, or succumb to commercial or political pressure. Similarly, the objectivity of news organizations owned by conglomerated corporations fairly may be questioned, in light of the natural incentive for such groups to report news in a manner intended to advance the conglomerate's financial interests.

Individuals and organizations who are the subject of news reports may use news management techniques to try to make a favourable impression. Some commentators on news values have argued that journalists' training in news values itself represents a systemic bias of the news.

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The norm of objectivity leads journalists to gravitate towards certain types of acts and exclude others. A journalist can be sure of objectivity in reporting that an official or public figure has made a certain statement. This is one reason why so much news reporting is devoted to official statements. Feminist critiques argue that discourse defined as objective by news organizations reflects a male-centered perspective. The critique of traditional norms of objectivity comes from within news organizations as well.

Viewed from a sociological perspective , news for mass consumption is produced in hierarchical organizations. Reporters, working near the bottom of the structure, are given significant autonomy in researching and preparing reports, subject to assignments and occasional intervention from higher decision-makers. The professional norms of journalism discourage overt censorship; however, news organizations have covert but firm norms about how to cover certain topics.

These policies are conveyed to journalists through socialization on the job; without any written policy, they simply learn how things are done. News production is routinized in several ways.

News stories use familiar formats and subgenres which vary by topic. Many news items revolve around periodic press conferences or other scheduled events. Further routine is established by assigning each journalist to a beat : a domain of human affairs, usually involving government or commerce, in which certain types of events routinely occur.

A common scholarly frame for understanding news production is to examine the role of information gatekeepers : to ask why and how certain narratives make their way from news producers to news consumers. New factors have emerged in internet-era newsrooms. One issue is "click-thinking", the editorial selection of news stories—and of journalists—who can generate the most website hits and thus advertising revenue.

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Unlike a newspaper, a news website has detailed data collection about which stories are popular and who is reading them. Journalists' sometimes unattributed echoing of other news sources can also increase the homogeneity of news feeds. In , a number of journalists were embarrassed after all reproducing a fictional quotation, originating from Wikipedia.

News organizations have historically been male-dominated, though women have acted as journalists since at least the s. The number of female journalists has increased over time, but organizational hierarchies remain controlled mostly by men. For various reasons, news media usually have a close relationship with the state, and often church as well, even when they cast themselves in critical roles.

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The news agencies which rose to power in the mids all had support from their respective governments, and in turn served their political interests to some degree. Today, international non-governmental organizations NGOs rival and may surpass governments in their influence on the content of news. Governments use international news transmissions to promote the national interest and conduct political warfare , alternatively known as public diplomacy and, in the modern era, international broadcasting.

International radio broadcasting came into wide-ranging use by world powers seeking cultural integration of their empires. Governments have also funneled programming through private news organizations, as when the British government arranged to insert news into the Reuters feed during and after World War Two. Investigation into the Central Intelligence Agency pursued in the s found that it owned hundreds of news organizations wire services, newspapers, magazines outright.

The Russian KGB heavily pursued a strategy of disinformation , planting false stories which made their way to news outlets worldwide. Broadcasts into Iraq before the Second Gulf War mimicked the style of local programming. Today, Al Jazeera , a TV and internet news network owned by the government of Qatar , has become one of the foremost news sources in the world, appreciated by millions as an alternative to the Western media. Edward Bernays , Propaganda , pp.

As distinct from advertising , which deals with marketing distinct from news, public relations involves the techniques of influencing news in order to give a certain impression to the public. A standard public relations tactic, the "third-party technique", is the creation of seemingly independent organizations, which can deliver objective-sounding statements to news organizations without revealing their corporate connections.

Public relations releases offer valuable newsworthy information to increasingly overworked journalists on deadline. Thus, public relations works its magic in secret. Public relations can dovetail with state objectives, as in the case of the news story about Iraqi soldiers taking "babies out of incubators" in Kuwaiti hospitals. Overall, the position of the public relations industry has grown stronger, while the position of news producers has grown weaker.

Public relations agents mediate the production of news about all sectors of society.